Abstracts of Plenary Talks:
- THE VIEW FROM THE BOTTOM-UP: INSIGHTS INTO THE MECHANISMS OF MARINE ECOSYSTEMS
Aletta T. Yñiguez
Ecosystems are complex adaptive systems where the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. They are characterized by a diversity of interacting units that have the capacity to react or adapt while they interact with each other and their heterogeneous environment. These localized interactions scale up and result in the emergence of sophisticated properties at the system level. By viewing and representing marine ecosystems through the lens of these diverse and locally interacting units, the influence of variability in biological traits and mechanistic processes can be traced to their resulting larger-scale outcomes. We use this approach to better understand how the interaction of life history processes of marine organisms with their environmental conditions can lead to different temporal and spatial distributions. I will discuss two case studies: a model of harmful algal blooms, and a model of the connections of organisms between different coral reefs. The harmful algal bloom model uniquely integrates the life history of the causative toxic dinoflagellate, the shellfish as the toxin vector, and the physico-chemical environment. This led to insights into the spatio-temporal dynamics of the toxic blooms, as well as the role of different mortality sources and life stage of the toxic organism in bloom formation and decline. The coral reef connectivity model integrated the life histories of three representative reef organisms with ocean circulation. This led to insights into the relative contribution of life history differences versus the geographic configuration of reefs and seasonal differences in circulation. Beyond enhancing our understanding of these marine ecosystems, these models can also be useful in managing the risks of HABs and conservation of reef ecosystems.
- UNDERSTANDING POLLINATOR DECLINE, COLONY DYNAMICS AND THE ROLE OF SUBLETHAL PESTICIDES
Vincent A.A. Jansen
Social bees perform a highly valuable ecosystem service in the form of pollination, and accomplish this through complex social organisation and behaviour, which allows efficiently coordination of tasks and division of labour. However, reports of colony losses suggest that social bees can suffer fundamental breakdowns when placed under mild environmental stress. I will present some work in which investigated the effect of neonicotinoid pesticides, which have been implicated in bee decline, on bumblebee colonies. When applied at low doses, neonicotinoid pesticides do not kill individual bees, it can have profound effects on the functioning of a colony, causing colonies to decline and whither. Here, we investigate how these results can be due to such sublethal stress through impairing colony function. We mathematically modelled stress on individual bees which impairs colony function and found how positive density dependence can cause multiple dynamic outcomes: some colonies fail while others thrive. The model accurately describes the dynamics of experimental bumblebee colonies, and we think our model can explain the enigmatic aspects of bee colony failures, highlighting an important role for colony functioning in bee decline.
- WHY HAD PERIODICAL CICADAS ACQUIRED PERIODICITY AND PRIME-NUMBERED LIFE CYCLES?
The evolution of periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) is enigmatic. Periodical cicadas in USA are famous with excessively long prime-numbered life cycles of 13- or 17- years and nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because all other cicadas are non-periodical, the periodical cicadas should have first evolved periodicity followed by the evolution of the prime-numbered cycles. There are various explanations have been made for the origins of periodicity emergence and the prime-numbered life cycles. One of the hypothesis suggested that geological cooling during glacial periods had triggered the evolution of periodical cicadas . We studied the effect of declining average temperature to show the evolution of periodicity from non-periodical cicadas. The ancestral cicadas should be non-periodical, and maturate to become an adult when their nymphal body size reaches a certain threshold size. During the evolution of periodicity, size maturation in the ancestral cicadas should have switched from size (temperature) dependence to time (period) dependence. We built an individual-based model of cicadas with environmental cooling to show the fixation of periodicity . Our preliminary results show that periodicity evolves in a cold environment. The second stage is the selection of prime-numbered cycles [3,4]. We here have an overview of the evolutionary history of periodical cicadas from geological changes of environments.
 Yoshimura J. (1997) The evolutionary origins of periodical cicadas during ice ages. Am Nat. 149: 112-124.
 Ito H. et al. (2015) Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas. Sci Rep. 5: 14094.
 Yoshimura J. (2009) Selection for prime-number intervals in a numerical model of periodical cicada evolution. Evolution. 63: 288-294.
 Tanaka Y. et al. (2009) The Allee effect in the selection for prime-numbered cycles in periodical cicadas. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 106, 8975-8979.
- MODELLING THE EFFECTS OF STIGMA ON LEPROSY
The World Health Organization’s leprosy-elimination campaign has significantly reduced global leprosy prevalence, but approximately 214,000 new cases of leprosy are reported each year. An ancient and neglected affliction, leprosy is also one of the most heavily stigmatised diseases of all time. We developed a mathematical model to examine the effects of stigma on sustaining disease transmission, using low and high degrees of stigma, as well as in its absence. Our results show that stigma does indeed play a central role in the long-term sustainability of leprosy. We also examined sensitivity of the outcome to all parameters and showed that the effects of stigma could increase the number of infected individuals by a factor of 80. Therefore both targeted education and shifts in cultural attitudes towards leprosy will be necessary for the eventual eradication of the disease.
- FUZZY LOGIC APPROACHES FOR CROP SUITABILITY, AND CROP PEST AND DISEASE RISK ASSESSMENT
Arnold R. Salvacion
Crop suitability is an important input in developing agricultural land use plan and determine limitations on growing specific crops in an area. Meanwhile, crop pest and disease risk are important indicators to minimize potential crop production losses. Several decision models have been developed to assess crop suitability, and crop pest and disease risk. However, these models either require a large number of parameters and/or long series of data in order to assess crop suitability, and crop pest and disease risk. Fuzzy logic approach provides an alternative way to carry the above-mentioned processes utilizing limited input data and fewer model parameters based on existing scientific databases and literature on the ecology of crop, pest, and diseases.
- AN INTRODUCTION TO DELAY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND APPLICATIONS IN BIOLOGY
Juancho A. Collera
Systems of delay differential equations (DDEs) have been used to model phenomena e.g. in Ecology, Epidemiology, Physiology, as well as in Physics and Economics. In this talk, I will introduce the audience to the basic theory of DDEs and present how time delays arise with particular focus on models from Biology. The approach is mathematical and I will also mention available numerical tools and software to study systems of DDEs. The delayed negative feedback model will be used as an example to illustrate the common features of DDEs. One difficulty in studying time-delay systems is the analysis of the distribution of the roots of transcendental equations that arise in such systems. Strategies in analyzing a family of transcendental equations will be given. Additionally, I will mention current researches in this direction.
- SYSTEMS APPROACHES IN UNDERSTANDING ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE: PREVENTING ITS ONSET AND DELAYING ITS PROGRESSION
Angelyn R. Lao
Systems biology is an interdisciplinary approach that aims at understanding the dynamic interactions between components of biological systems. It is also an approach by which biological questions are addressed through integrating experiments in iterative cycles with computational modelling, simulation and theory. This approach is best applied when there is synergistic usage of the models and data. As such that the models established are meaningful and make sense to the collected data. Systems biology is a cross talk between different disciplines. It requires interdisciplinary collaboration with the goal of having a deeper insight of the functional bases of life. To explore on how to prevent or delay the onset or progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), systems biology approaches of studying the factors that influence and cause AD are applied to guide data collection, discover new questions, formulate hypotheses, and reveal simplicity in complexity.
- THE INHERITANCE OF BISTABILITY AND OSCILLATION IN CHEMICAL REACTION NETWORKS
Casian Alexandru Pantea
Biochemical reaction networks are often modeled by high-dimensional polynomial differential equations, which involve many non-linearities and whose parameters are generally unknown. While this makes complex reaction networks difficult to study, recent work has shown that some of their dynamical behaviors can be inferred from an analysis of their (simpler) subnetworks. In this talk we consider two central dynamical behaviors that underlie important cellular processes, namely bistability and oscillation. Specifically, we attack the question: when is it that we can deduce that bistablity and Hopf bifurcations are inherited when a network is “built up” from a subnetwork that admits these dynamical behaviors? We identify a number of operations on reaction networks that preserve bistability or Hopf bifurcation as we build up the network. This work is a step towards a rigorous theory of “motifs”, a central theme in systems biology.
Titles of Posters:
- OPTIMAL OV-BORTEZOMIB INTERVENTION STRATEGIES AND NK CELL ADJUVANT THERAPY FOR TUMOR TREATMENT (student)
Angelica P. Aspirin, Aurelio A. de los Reyes V, Yangjin Kim
- ON A MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF HIV TRANSMISSION BASED ON SEXUAL PREFERENCE (student)
Mark L. Caay
- NOVEL DATA INDEPENDENT ACQUISITION METHOD IN MASS SPECTROMETRY-BASED ANALYSIS OF PROTEOME BIOMARKERS IN BREAST CANCER (student)
Maritess D. Cation, Reta Birhanu Kitata, Ya-Yi Hsu, Miao-Hsia Lin, Yu-Ju Chen
- MODELING RABIES TRANSMISSION DYNAMICS AND CONTROL IN THE THREE ADMINISTRATIVE DISTRICTS OF DAVAO CITY (student)
Eliezer O. Diamante, Xyza Mae A. Arandela, Zython Paul T. Lachica, Giovanna Faye R. Oguis, Pedro A. Alviola IV, May Anne E. Mata
- CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELLING OF THE PH-SENSITIVE DEGRADATION OF HYDROXYPROPYLCELLULOSE-BLENDED SODIUM ALGINATE MICROCAPSULES FOR CONTROLLED DRUG DELIVERY (student)
Julius Nino P. Doctor, Justin Richmond C. Domingo, Ludhovik Luiz B. Madrid, Terence P. Tumolva
- RISK FACTOR ANALYSIS FOR DOG BITE VICTIMS IN DAVAO CITY, SOUTHERN PHILIPPINES
Sherelyn A. Evangelio, Dejell Anne M. Satur, Zython Paul T. Lachica, May Anne E. Mata, Pedro A. Alviola IV
- A SIMULATION STUDY OF THE UNDERSTORY PLANT COMMUNITY IN FOREST ECOSYSTEMS (student)
Joan Ellaine Leslie V. Sabater, Kristina Isabel R. Abuel, Gimelle B. Gamilla, Jerrold M. Tubay
- PROBABILISTIC BOOLEAN NETWORK APPROACH TO ASYMMETRIC EXCLUSION PROCESS WITH LANGMUIR KINETICS
Ken Joffaniel M. Gonzales
- DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION MODEL FOR THE TREATMENT OF TUMOR GROWTH WITH THE EFFECT OF IMMUNE RESPONSE WITH RADIOTHERAPY
Sanjeev Kumar, Rashmi Sharma
- THE ROLE OF PET OWNERSHIP AND ADOPTION ON THE SPREAD OF RABIES VIRUS AMONG STRAY AND PET DOGS: A LATIN HYPERCUBE SAMPLING-PARTIAL RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (LHS-PRCC) SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS (student)
Zython Paul T. Lachica, Jaf Azriel Q. Duban, May Anne E. Mata
- CANINE RABIES SPREAD DYNAMICS UNDER DIFFERENT CONTROL INTERVENTIONS AND PROMOTION OF RESPONSIBLE PET OWNERSHIP USING AGENT-BASED MODELING (student)
Zython Paul T. Lachica, Abel Leandro B. Paras, Ritchie Mae T. Gamot, Pedro A. Alviola IV, May Anne E. Mata
- A MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR THE TRANSMISSION OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS (student)
Glee Ann R. Lumauag, Carlene P.C. Pilar-Arceo
- MODELING CELLULAR DYNAMICS IN TISSUE MORPHOGENESIS: A LEVEL SET-BASED APPROACH
Rhudaina Z. Mohammad, Karel Svadlenka, Hideru Togashi
- PROBABILITY OF EXTINCTION OF ANTIBIOTIC DRUG RESISTANCE DEPENDING ON BIOLOGICAL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS (student)
Bhawna Malik, Samit Bhattacharyya
- COST OPTIMIZATION OF INTERVENTION STRATEGIES TO ERADICATE RABIES IN DAVAO CITY USING LINEAR PROGRAMMING (student)
Kenneth Montajes, Eliezer Diamante, Novelyn Herrada, Zython Paul Lachica, Giovanna Faye Oguis, Pedro Alviola IV, May Anne Mata
- LINEAR CONJUGACY OF CHEMICAL KINETIC SYSTEMS
Allen L. Nazareno, Raymond Paul L. Eclarin, Eduardo R. Mendoza, Angelyn R. Lao
- AUTOMATED BRANCHED DE NOVO GENOME ASSEMBLY AND RESULTS COLLATION THROUGH TOOL CONTAINERIZATION AND THE COMMON WORKFLOW LANGUAGE (CWL) (student)
Elcid Aaron Pangilinan
- BIFURCATION ANALYSIS OF A DISCRETE SIS EPIDEMIC MODEL WITH SATURATED INCIDENCE RATE AND LOGISTIC GROWTH (student)
Anthony Meneses Pasion, Juancho Arranz Collera
- PERSISTENCE OF COEVOLUTIONARY RED QUEEN DYNAMICS IN STOCHASTIC HOST-PARASITE INTERACTION
Nathaniel C. San Jose, Allyzssa Eunice O. Avila, Jomar F. Rabajante
- HIV ANTIRETROVIRAL ALLOCATION AMONG PRIMARY HEALTH CARE FACILITIES IN THE PHILIPPINES
Christian Alvin H. Buhat, Robert Smith?